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Block size therefore typically varies between 256KB and 4MB

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How Do SSDs Work

Canada Goose Jackets Here at ExtremeTech, we often discussed the difference between different types of NAND structures vertical NAND versus planar, or multi level cell (MLC) versustriple level cells(TLC). Now, let talk about the more basic relevant question: How do SSDs work in the first place, and how do they buy canada goose jacket cheap compare with newer technologies, like Intel Optane? Canada Goose Jackets

canadian goose jacket To understand how and why SSDs are different from spinning discs, we need to talk a little bit about hard drives. A hard drive stores data on a series of spinning magnetic disks called platters. There an actuator arm with read/write heads attached to it. This arm positions the read write heads over the correct area of the drive to read or write information. canadian goose jacket

Because the drive heads must align over an area of the disk in order to read or write data (and the disk is constantly spinning), there a non zero wait time before data can be accessed. cheap Canada Goose The drive may need to read from multiple locations in order to launch a program or load a file, which means it may have to wait for the platters to spin into the proper position multiple times before it can complete the command. If a drive is asleep or in a low power state, it can take several seconds more for the disk to spin up to full power and begin operating.

Canada Goose Parka From the very beginning, it was clearthat hard drives couldn possibly match the uk canada goose outlet speeds at which CPUs could operate. Latency in HDDs is measured in milliseconds, compared with nanoseconds for your typical CPU. One millisecond is 1,000,000 nanoseconds, and it typically takes a hard drive 10 Canada Goose Outlet 15 milliseconds to find data on the drive and begin reading it. The hard drive industry introduced smaller platters, on disk memory caches, and faster spindle speeds to counteract this trend, but there only so fast drives can spin. Western Digital 10,000 RPM VelociRaptor family is the fastest set of drives ever built for the consumer market, while some enterprise drives spun up to 15,000 RPM. The problem is, even the fastest spinning drive with the largest caches and smallest platters are still achingly slow as far as your CPU is concerned. Canada Goose Parka

canada goose clearance sale How SSDs Are Different I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses. Henry Ford canada goose clearance sale

canada goose coats on sale Solid state drives are called that specifically because they don rely on moving parts or spinning disks. Instead, data is saved to a pool of NAND flash. NAND itself is made up of what are called floating gate transistors. Unlike the transistor designs used in DRAM, which must be refreshed multiple times per second, NAND flash is designed to retain its charge state even when not powered up. This makes NAND a type of non volatile memory. canada goose coats on sale

Canada Goose Outlet The diagram above shows a simple flash cell design. Electrons are stored in the floating gate, which then reads as charged or not charged Yes, in NAND flash, a 0 means data is stored in a cell it the opposite of how we typically think of a zero or one. NAND flash is buy canada goose jacket organized in a grid. The entire grid layout is referred to as a block, while the individual rows that make up the uk canada goose grid are called a page. Common page sizes are 2K, 4K, 8K, or 16K, with 128 to 256 pages per block. Block size therefore typically varies between 256KB and 4MB. Canada Goose Outlet

One advantage of this system should be immediately obvious. Because canada goose black friday sale SSDs have no moving parts, they can operate at speeds far Canada Goose Online above those of a typical HDD. The following chart shows the access latency for typical canada goose uk shop storage mediums given in microseconds.

canada goose Image by CodeCapsule canada goose

Canada Goose online NAND is nowhere near as fast as main memory, but it multiple orders of magnitude faster than a hard drive. While write latencies are significantly slower for NAND flash than read latencies, they still outstrip traditional spinning media. Canada Goose online

There are two things to notice in the above chart. First, note how adding more bits per cell of NAND has a significant impact on the memory performance. It worse for writes as opposed to reads typical triple level cell (TLC) latency is 4x worse compared with single level cell (SLC) NAND for reads, but 6x worse for writes. Erase latencies are also significantly impacted. The impact isn proportional, either canada goose uk black friday TLC NAND is nearly twice as slow as MLC NAND, despite holding just 50% more data (three bits per cell, instead of two).

canada goose store The reason TLC NAND is slower than MLC or SLC has to do with how data moves in and out of the NAND cell. With SLC NAND, the controller only needs to know if the bit is a 0 or a 1. With MLC NAND, the cell may have four values 00, 01, 10, or 11. With TLC NAND, the cell can have eight values. Reading the proper value out of the cell requires the memory controller to use a precise voltage to ascertain whether any particular cell is charged. canada goose store

Canada Goose sale Reads, Writes, and ErasureOne of the functional limitations of SSDs is while they can read and write data very quickly to an empty drive, overwriting data is much slower. This is because while SSDs read data at the page level (meaning from individual rows within the NAND memory grid) and can write at the page level, assuming surrounding cells are empty, they can only erase data at the block level. This is because the act of erasing NAND flash requires a high amount of voltage. While you can theoretically erase NAND at the page level, the amount of voltage required stresses the individual cells around the cells that are being re written. Erasing data at the block level helps mitigate this problem. Canada Goose sale

The only way Canada Goose Coats On Sale for an SSD to update an existing page is to copy the contents of the entire block into memory, erase the block, and then write the contents of the old block + the updated page. If the drive is full and there are no empty pages available, the SSD must first scan for blocks that are marked for deletion but that haven been deleted yet, erase them, and then write the data to the now erased page. This is why SSDs can become slower as they age a mostly empty canada goose outlet drive is full of blocks that can be written immediately, a mostly full drive is more likely to be forced through the entire program/erase sequence.

buy canada goose jacket If you used SSDs, you likely heard of something called collection. Garbage collection is a background process that allows a drive to mitigate the performance impact of the program/erase cycle by performing certain tasks in the background. The following image steps through the garbage collection process. buy canada goose jacket

Image courtesy of Wikipedia

Note canada goose clearance in this example, the drive has taken advantage of the fact that it can write very quickly to empty pages by writing new values for the first four blocks (A It also written two new blocks, E and H. Blocks A D are now marked as stale, meaning they contain information the drive has marked as out of date. During an idle period, the SSD will move the fresh pages over to a new block, erase the old block, and mark it as free space. This means the next time the SSD needs to perform a write, it can write directly to the now empty Block X, rather than performing the program/erase cycle.

The next concept I want to discuss is TRIM. When you delete a file from Windows on a typical hard drive, the file isn deleted immediately. Instead, the operating system tells the hard drive it can overwrite the physical area of the disk where that data was stored the next time it needs to perform a write. This is why it possible to undelete files (and why deleting files in Windows doesn typically clear much physical disk space until you empty the recycling bin). With a traditional HDD, the OS doesn need to pay attention to where data is being written or what the relative state of the blocks or pages is. With an SSD, this matters.

The TRIM cheap canada goose uk command allows the operating system to Canada Goose online tell the SSD it can skip rewriting certain data the next time it performs a block erase. This lowers the total amount of data the drive writes and increases SSD longevity. Both reads and writes damage NAND flash, but writes do far more damage than reads. Fortunately, block level longevity has not proven to be an issue in modern NAND flash. More data on SSD longevity, courtesy of the Tech Report, can be found here.

The last two concepts we want to talk about are wear leveling and write amplification. Because SSDs write data to pages but erase data in blocks, the amount of data being written to the drive is always larger than the actual update. Canada Goose Parka If you make a change to a 4KB file, for example, the entire block that 4K file sits within must be updated and rewritten. Depending on the number of pages per block and the size of the pages, you might end up writing 4MB worth of data to update a 4KB file. Garbage collection reduces the impact of write amplification, as does the TRIM command. Keeping a significant chunk of the drive free and/or manufacturer over provisioning can also reduce the impact of write amplification.

Wear leveling refers to the practice of ensuring certain NAND blocks aren written and erased more often than others. While wear leveling increases a drive life expectancy and endurance by writing to the NAND equally, it can actually increase write amplification. In other to distribute writes evenly across the disk, it sometimes necessary to program and erase blocks even though their contents haven actually changed. A good wear leveling algorithm seeks to balance these impacts.

canada goose black friday sale The SSD ControllerIt should be obvious by now SSDs require much more sophisticated control mechanisms than hard drives do. That not to diss magnetic media I actually think HDDs deserve Canada Goose sale more respect than they are given. https://www.winterdownparkas.com The mechanical challenges involved in balancing multiple read write heads nanometers above platters that spin at 5,400 to 10,000 RPM are nothing to sneeze at. The fact that HDDs perform this challenge while pioneering new methods of recording to magnetic media and eventually wind up selling drives at 3 5 cents per gigabyte is simply incredible. canada goose black friday sale

A typical SSD controller

canada goose deals SSD controllers, however, are in a class by themselves. They often have a DDR3 memory pool to help with managing the NAND itself. Many drives also incorporate single level cell caches that act as buffers, increasing drive performance by dedicating fast NAND to read/write cycles. Because the NAND flash in an SSD is typically canada goose connected to the controller through a series of parallel memory channels, you can think of the drive controller as performing some of the same load balancing work as a high end storage array canada goose coats on sale SSDs don deploy RAID internally but wear leveling, canadian goose jacket garbage collection, and SLC cache canada goose store management all have parallels in the big iron world. canada goose deals

Some drives also use data compression algorithms to reduce the total number of writes and improve the drive lifespan. The SSD controller handles error canada goose coats correction, and the algorithms that control for single bit errors have become increasingly complex as time has passed.

cheap Canada Goose Unfortunately, we can go into too much detail on SSD controllers because companies lock down their various secret sauces. Much of NAND flash performance is determined by the underlying controller, and companies aren willing to lift the lid too far on how they do what they do, lest they hand a competitor an advantage. cheap Canada Goose

buy canada goose jacket cheap The Road AheadNAND flash offers an enormous improvement over hard drives, but it isn without its own drawbacks and challenges. Drive capacities canada goose clearance sale and price per gigabyte are expected to continue to rise and fall respectively, but there little chance SSDs will catch hard drives in price per gigabyte. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Thus far, SSD manufacturers have delivered better performance by offering faster data standards, more bandwidth, and more channels per controller plus the use of SLC caches we mentioned earlier. Nonetheless, in the long run, it assumed NAND will be replaced by something else.

canada goose clearance What that something else will look like is still open for debate. Both magnetic RAM and phase change memory have presented themselves as candidates, though both technologies are still in early stages and must overcome significant challenges to actually compete as a replacement to NAND. canada goose uk outlet Whether consumers would notice the difference is an open question. If you upgraded from NAND to an SSD and then upgraded to a faster SSD, you likely aware the gap between HDDs and SSDs is much larger than the SSD to SSD gap, even when upgrading from a relatively modest drive. Improving access times from milliseconds to microseconds matters a great deal, but improving them from microseconds to nanoseconds might fall below what humans can really perceive in most cases canada goose clearance.

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Românii pot investi în titlurile de stat Tezaur și în luna ianuarie 2021

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Ministerul Finanțelor Publice emite, începând cu 4 ianuarie 2021, noi titluri de stat în cadrul Programului Tezaur, cu maturități de 1, 3 și 5 ani, şi dobânzi de 3,25%, 3,5% și 3,75%.

Titlurile de stat pot fi cumpărate:

  • între 4-27 ianuarie, de la unitățile Trezoreriei Statului;
  • între 4-25  ianuarie, prin Compania Națională Poșta Română pentru mediul rural și 4-26 ianuarie pentru mediul urban prin Compania Națională Poșta Română.

Titlurile de stat sunt în forma dematerializată şi au valoare nominală de 1 leu. Dobânda este plătită la termenele prevăzute în prospectul de emisiune. De asemenea, titlurile de stat emise în cadrul Programului Tezaur sunt transferabile și se pot răscumpăra în avans. Un investitor poate efectua una sau mai multe subscrieri în cadrul unei emisiuni.

Sunt eligibile persoanele fizice care au împlinit vârsta de 18 ani la data efectuării subscrierii. A fost eliminată plafonarea sumelor care pot fi investite de persoanele fizice în cadrul acestor emisiuni. Veniturile/câștigurile aferente investiţiei sunt neimpozabile.

Investitorii au posibilitatea anulării subscrierilor deja efectuate prin depunerea unei cereri doar în perioada de subscriere.

În cazul decesului, dreptul de proprietate asupra titlurilor de stat se transferă moștenitorilor, care prezintă documentele legale ce le atestă calitatea.

Fondurile obținute de Ministerul Finanțelor Publice în calitate de emitent, ca urmare a emisiunii de titluri de stat, vor fi utilizate pentru finanțarea deficitului bugetar și refinanțarea datoriei publice.

Prospectul de emisiune și orice eventuale modificări ale acestuia vor fi publicate pe:

 

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27 decembrie, Sfântul Ștefan

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Sfântul Ştefan, considerat primul care a vestit şi a mărturisit credinţa în Hristos, devenind primul martir al Bisericii, este sărbătorit de creştini în a treia zi de Crăciun. Peste 460.000 de români îşi sărbătoresc astăzi ziua onomastică.
Conform datelor furnizate de Direcţia pentru Evidenţa Persoanelor, prenume masculine sunt: Stefan/Ştefan – 300.627, Istvan – 32.889, Fanel/Fănel – 8.344, Fanica/Fănică – 4.897, Stefanel/Ştefănel – 3.500, Stefanut/Ştefănuţ – 3.011, Fane – 522, Stefanus/Ştefănuş – 4, scrie Agerpres.
Iar prenume feminine: Stefania/Ştefania – 112.241, Stefana/Ştefana – 19.637, Fanica/Fănica – 8.383, Fanuta/Fănuţa – 1.018, Fana – 306.
Sfântul Ştefan este considerat primul care a vestit şi a mărturisit credinţa în Iisus Hristos, iar pentru aceasta a fost ucis cu pietre, potrivit News.ro. De origine iudeu, Sfântul Apostol şi Arhidiacon Ştefan a fost unul dintre cei şapte diaconi aleşi de către Sfinţii Apostoli din Ierusalim. Sfântul Ştefan a ajutat la împărţirea zilnică a bunurilor, în special a hranei. El s-a bucurat de întâietate în rândul diaconilor, fiind socotit arhidiacon. Numele său este însă de origine greacă, însemnând “coroană”.

Sfântul Ştefan era un bun cunoscător al Vechiului Testament, precum şi al învăţăturilor lui Iisus Hristos. El a fost judecat de Sinedriu pentru blasfemie la adresa lui Moise şi a lui Dumnezeu. Sfântul Ştefan a fost scos afară din cetate şi omorât cu pietre, devenind astfel primul martir creştin. În timp ce era ucis, el a cerut iertare pentru cei care îl omorau. Potrivit tradiţiei, trupul său a fost înmormântat într-o peşteră de Gamaliel.

Potrivit tradiţiei, persoanele cu probleme de sănătate trebuie să aducă în casă, în ziua Sfântului Ştefan, o icoană a acestuia. De altfel, se consideră că icoana Sfântului Ştefan este bine să fie dăruită pentru sporul casei şi pentru sănătate, iar persoanele care sunt certate să se împace.
Sursa: Agerpres, News.ro

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Norme noi pentru platformele digitale, în Uniunea Europeană

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Comisia Europeană a propus o reformă a spațiului digital și un set de norme noi pentru toate tipurile de servicii digitale, printre care platformele de comunicare socială, piețele online și alte platforme online care operează în Uniunea Europeană

Noile norme vor proteja mai bine drepturile fundamentale ale consumatorilor şi vor interzice condițiile inechitabile impuse de platformele online care au devenit, sau se preconizează că vor deveni, controlorii fluxului de informație ai pieței unice.

Actul legislativ privind serviciile digitale va introduce o serie de obligații noi, armonizate la nivelul UE, calibrate în funcție de dimensiunea și impactul acestor servicii, precum:

  • norme privind eliminarea bunurilor, serviciilor sau a conținuturilor ilegale online;
  • garanții pentru utilizatorii al căror conținut a fost eliminat în mod eronat de către platforme;
  • noi obligații pentru platformele foarte mari de a lua măsuri bazate pe riscuri pentru a preveni utilizarea abuzivă a sistemelor lor;
  • măsuri ample de asigurare a transparenței, inclusiv în ceea ce privește publicitatea online și algoritmii utilizați pentru a recomanda conținuturi utilizatorilor;
  • noi competențe de examinare a modului de funcționare a platformelor, inclusiv prin facilitarea accesului cercetătorilor la datele platformelor-cheie;
  • noi norme privind trasabilitatea utilizatorilor profesionali pe piețele online, pentru a contribui la identificarea vânzătorilor de bunuri sau de servicii ilegale;
  • un proces inovator de cooperare între autoritățile publice pentru a asigura o aplicare eficace a legislației în întreaga piață unică.

Platformele cu un număr de utilizatori mai mare decât 10 % din populația UE (45 de milioane) sunt considerate a avea un caracter sistemic și pentru ele se instituie nu doar obligații specifice de a-și controla propriile riscuri, dar și o nouă structură de supraveghere. Acest nou cadru de responsabilitate va consta dintr-un consiliu de coordonatori naționali pentru servicii digitale, Comisia având competențe speciale în ceea ce privește supravegherea platformelor foarte mari, inclusiv posibilitatea de a le sancționa în mod direct.

Actul legislativ privind piețele digitale stabilește norme armonizate care definesc și interzic practici neloiale ale controlorilor fluxului de informație și oferă un mecanism de asigurare a respectării normelor bazat pe investigații de piață. Concret, actul legislativ privind piețele digitale:

  • se aplică numai furnizorilor principali de servicii de platformă centrală care sunt cei mai predispuși la practici neloiale, cum ar fi motoarele de căutare, rețelele sociale sau serviciile de intermediere online, și care îndeplinesc criteriile legislative obiective pentru a fi desemnați drept „controlori ai fluxului de informație”;
  • stabilește praguri cantitative ca bază pentru identificarea presupușilor controlori ai fluxului de informative ( CE va avea competența de a desemna societăți drept controlori ai fluxului de informație în urma unei investigații de piață);
  • interzice o serie de practici care sunt în mod clar inechitabile, cum ar fi blocarea utilizatorilor de a dezinstala orice program informatic sau aplicație preinstalată;
  • va impune sancțiuni pentru neconformitate, care ar putea include amenzi de până la 10 % din cifra de afaceri, la nivel mondial, a controlorului fluxului de informație;

Parlamentul European și statele membre vor discuta propunerile Comisiei în cadrul procedurii legislative ordinare. În cazul în care va fi adoptat, textul final va fi direct aplicabil în întreaga Uniune Europeană.

 

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